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    美國國家公共電臺 NPR 采訪詹姆斯·古德溫

    時間:2022-05-08 01:22來源:互聯網 提供網友:nan ? 字體: [ ]
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    Why you want to supercharge your brain

    NPR's A Martinez speaks with Professor James Goodwin about his book, Supercharge Your Brain: How to Maintain a Healthy Brain Throughout Your Life.

    A MARTINEZ, HOST:

    In 1848, Phineas Gage1 was working in railway construction when he suffered a brain injury.

    JAMES GOODWIN: Before the accident, he was personable, well-mannered, great with people.

    MARTINEZ: That's James Goodwin, who writes about Phineas Gage in his book "Supercharge Your Brain."

    An iron bar tore through Gage's left cheek. Now, he survived, but he was never the same.

    GOODWIN: After the accident, he became irascible, profane2, argumentative and aggressive. And his doctor came to the conclusion that, in fact, these changes had been the result of the loss of brain tissue.

    MARTINEZ: It's a case that James Goodwin says changed our understanding of the brain. Now, I asked him for his advice for anyone who might experience brain trauma3.

    GOODWIN: I think the first thing I would say is take all possible steps to avoid blows to the head. You show me a case of concussion4 and I will show you a damaged brain. Now, over the years, these points of damage may be very small. I remember my father was a boxer5. He eventually got dementia. And when they did a scan of his brain, there were hundreds of little tiny white marks in the gray matter. They were the scars from the many injuries from blows to the head.

    So you need to remember, if you're in a high-risk profession or occupation, that every blow to the head is going to build up over time. Some people can get away with this, but the general rule is you show me a concussion, I will show you a change in personality. It might be small, but it will be there.

    MARTINEZ: But for a professional athlete, James, or a police officer or a - or someone that is saving lives, that might be part of the job. They can't stop their work.

    GOODWIN: Then in that case, you've got to do everything else possible to maintain the health of your brain because the brain is fairly resilient - I don't want to paint a black picture here - so that it can sustain levels of damage. But if you keep it in tiptop condition and you follow all the rules about brain health, then you stand a much better chance of getting through this without those injuries having an effect.

    MARTINEZ: What are some of those rules to keeping your brain tiptop? I remember my dad used to do a crossword6 puzzle every single day. And he was convinced, James - convinced - that doing a crossword puzzle in pen every day from the newspaper would keep his brain sharp. Was he just imagining that?

    GOODWIN: Well, the brain game industry has convinced a lot of people the same as your father. What I would say is that it raises the level of arousal in the brain. It's rewarding and highly satisfying, and both those will contribute to good brain health.

    But actually, there are other activities which are better. We call them cognitive7 stimulating8 activities. All of them have one thing in common, and that is you learn something new. If you're on an old game or a crossword and you're in the comfort zone and nothing's changing very much, then that won't have the same effect as if you're learning new things.

    MARTINEZ: Or maybe getting better at something, too, because it sounds like that stimulates9 the brain - getting better at something.

    GOODWIN: Actually, you're absolutely right. It's the progress that you make that protects the brain because it makes the brain develop new connections - what we call synapses10. And as long as you're doing that, it's going to rejuvenate11 the brain.

    MARTINEZ: I've got to call my dad immediately after this interview, James, and tell him to put his pen down.

    How about oral hygiene12? Because I don't know if many people will make that connection between oral hygiene and brain maintenance.

    GOODWIN: Oh, that's a really important question. What we know is that one of the big sites of inflammation in the body is the mouth. That's because there are huge numbers of bacteria in there. We're constantly putting food into the mouth, and that generates levels of inflammation. And that inflammation is the enemy of good brain health. And we also know that there's certain bacteria in the mouth which can actually migrate to the brain, and we find this in dementia patients. So although it sounds unusual, good dental hygiene is highly protective to the brain.

    MARTINEZ: You know, James, you wrote the book "Supercharge Your Brain." What do you do on a personal level to try and keep your brain sharp?

    GOODWIN: I bear one principle in mind - I try and keep my inflammation levels down. If I took the blood of an 18-year-old and measured all the inflammatory chemicals in there - things like interleukin 6, CRP, other molecules13 - they'd be low. He's young. The body can cope with all the things that we do that are not necessarily good for the brain. But by the time you get to my age - and I am in my 70s now - all my inflammatory molecules will be quite high in my blood.

    So I exercise five days a week. I make sure that I only eat regularly at certain times. Eating and drinking at all hours of the day and night is not a good thing. The brain needs a rest and the body needs a rest. I make sure I have a great social life. If you're lonely, it's as damaging to your health as smoking 15 cigarettes a day and drinking a bottle of vodka. And it also is a good predictor of dementia. So I make sure that I've got good social contacts. And then the last one would be I manage my stress levels.

    MARTINEZ: But managing our stress and avoiding loneliness - I mean, those are two things that in the last couple of years, Professor, have been put to the test with COVID. Billions and billions of human beings have gone through this collective trauma of COVID for two years now. I mean, what's being studied - what's being talked about in terms of what this time may have been doing to our brains?

    GOODWIN: Well, the first thing I'd like to say - if I wanted to devise a plan to damage the health of the nation, I'd go for lockdown. It's enormously damaging. It may flatten14 the curve on COVID, but the downside of lockdown is huge. It means we take less exercise. It means that we eat less well. It means that we have less access to medical care. It means that we don't see people. All of these things are big negatives as far as brain health is concerned.

    MARTINEZ: Is that something that maybe was unavoidable, though, you know, considering what we didn't know about COVID at the start?

    GOODWIN: I think that's a fair point to make. So to counter that, what I would say was do everything you possibly can, if you're restricted in your social activities, to maintain contact with other people. Our social nature has evolved in the brain over 1.5 million years of evolution. Soon as you start interfering15 with that interaction with other people, it's going to be damaging to the brain. Phone people. Get on Zoom16. Write people letters. Talk over the garden fence. Do anything you can to maintain your social life. It's hugely important.

    MARTINEZ: Professor James Goodwin, director of science and research impact at Brain Health Network and author of "Supercharge Your Brain: How To Maintain A Healthy Brain Throughout Your Life." Thank you very much, Professor.

    GOODWIN: Thank you very much, A. It was a pleasure to be with you and to be with your listeners.


    點擊收聽單詞發音收聽單詞發音  

    1 gage YsAz0j     
    n.標準尺寸,規格;量規,量表 [=gauge]
    參考例句:
    • Can you gage what her reaction is likely to be?你能揣測她的反應可能是什么嗎?
    • It's difficult to gage one's character.要判斷一個人的品格是很困難的。
    2 profane l1NzQ     
    adj.褻神的,褻瀆的;vt.褻瀆,玷污
    參考例句:
    • He doesn't dare to profane the name of God.他不敢褻瀆上帝之名。
    • His profane language annoyed us.他褻瀆的言語激怒了我們。
    3 trauma TJIzJ     
    n.外傷,精神創傷
    參考例句:
    • Counselling is helping him work through this trauma.心理輔導正幫助他面對痛苦。
    • The phobia may have its root in a childhood trauma.恐懼癥可能源于童年時期的創傷。
    4 concussion 5YDys     
    n.腦震蕩;震動
    參考例句:
    • He was carried off the field with slight concussion.他因輕微腦震蕩給抬離了現場。
    • She suffers from brain concussion.她得了腦震蕩。
    5 boxer sxKzdR     
    n.制箱者,拳擊手
    參考例句:
    • The boxer gave his opponent a punch on the nose.這個拳擊手朝他對手的鼻子上猛擊一拳。
    • He moved lightly on his toes like a boxer.他像拳擊手一樣踮著腳輕盈移動。
    6 crossword VvOzBj     
    n.縱橫字謎,縱橫填字游戲
    參考例句:
    • He shows a great interest in crossword puzzles.他對填字游戲表現出很大興趣。
    • Don't chuck yesterday's paper out.I still haven't done the crossword.別扔了昨天的報紙,我還沒做字謎游戲呢。
    7 cognitive Uqwz0     
    adj.認知的,認識的,有感知的
    參考例句:
    • As children grow older,their cognitive processes become sharper.孩子們越長越大,他們的認知過程變得更為敏銳。
    • The cognitive psychologist is like the tinker who wants to know how a clock works.認知心理學者倒很像一個需要通曉鐘表如何運轉的鐘表修理匠。
    8 stimulating ShBz7A     
    adj.有啟發性的,能激發人思考的
    參考例句:
    • shower gel containing plant extracts that have a stimulating effect on the skin 含有對皮膚有益的植物精華的沐浴凝膠
    • This is a drug for stimulating nerves. 這是一種興奮劑。
    9 stimulates 7384b1562fa5973e17b0984305c09f3e     
    v.刺激( stimulate的第三人稱單數 );激勵;使興奮;起興奮作用,起刺激作用,起促進作用
    參考例句:
    • Exercise stimulates the body. 運動促進身體健康。 來自《簡明英漢詞典》
    • Alcohol stimulates the action of the heart. 酒刺激心臟的活動。 來自《現代英漢綜合大詞典》
    10 synapses 866e8ec5e7e57c04ff0daa7921c4d2a5     
    n.(神經元的)突觸( synapse的名詞復數 );染色體結合( synapsis的名詞復數 );聯會;突觸;(神經元的)觸處
    參考例句:
    • Nerve cells communicate with one another at the synapses, where their membranes almost touch. 神經細胞在突觸部位彼此溝通,在這里它們的膜幾乎接觸到一起了。 來自辭典例句
    • Glutamatergic synapses are common excitatory chemical connections in mammalian central nervous system. 谷氨酸性突觸是哺乳動物神經系統的主要興奮性突觸。 來自互聯網
    11 rejuvenate oVVxn     
    v.(使)返老還童;(使)恢復活力
    參考例句:
    • The mountain air will rejuvenate you.山里的空氣會使你恢復活力。
    • Exercise is perhaps the most effective way to rejuvenate your skin.鍛煉可能是使皮膚恢復活力的最好手段。
    12 hygiene Kchzr     
    n.健康法,衛生學 (a.hygienic)
    參考例句:
    • Their course of study includes elementary hygiene and medical theory.他們的課程包括基礎衛生學和醫療知識。
    • He's going to give us a lecture on public hygiene.他要給我們作關于公共衛生方面的報告。
    13 molecules 187c25e49d45ad10b2f266c1fa7a8d49     
    分子( molecule的名詞復數 )
    參考例句:
    • The structure of molecules can be seen under an electron microscope. 分子的結構可在電子顯微鏡下觀察到。
    • Inside the reactor the large molecules are cracked into smaller molecules. 在反應堆里,大分子裂變為小分子。
    14 flatten N7UyR     
    v.把...弄平,使倒伏;使(漆等)失去光澤
    參考例句:
    • We can flatten out a piece of metal by hammering it.我們可以用錘子把一塊金屬敲平。
    • The wrinkled silk will flatten out if you iron it.發皺的絲綢可以用熨斗燙平。
    15 interfering interfering     
    adj. 妨礙的 動詞interfere的現在分詞
    參考例句:
    • He's an interfering old busybody! 他老愛管閑事!
    • I wish my mother would stop interfering and let me make my own decisions. 我希望我母親不再干預,讓我自己拿主意。
    16 zoom VenzWT     
    n.急速上升;v.突然擴大,急速上升
    參考例句:
    • The airplane's zoom carried it above the clouds.飛機的陡直上升使它飛到云層之上。
    • I live near an airport and the zoom of passing planes can be heard night and day.我住在一個飛機場附近,晝夜都能聽到飛機飛過的嗡嗡聲。
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